Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal water pumps are one of the most common types of pumps. They are used in industrial and home applications from moving sewage to and from treatment plants to pulling water from a well or river into a home or cottage. Here is an overview of how these types of water pumps work and the different types of jobs they handle.

How do centrifugal pumps work?

These units work through a process called kinetic energy when pumping water and other fluids through a piping system. Centrifugal water pumps have an impeller inside of them that are often made out of rubber. The motor turns the impeller inside the unit. This, in turn, causes friction to build up to create a suction vacuum strong enough to pull water into it from a source like a river. The impeller then forces the fluid out into the pipes connected to the outlet on the unit. The force of the water entering the pipes will determine the amount of pressure in them.

What types of centrifugal units are available?

There are a number of different pumps available:

  • Self-priming: In a regular unit, you typically have to prime it before fluid will flow properly through it. This means the casing of the water pump has to be filled with water before it is turned on. A regular water pump can also lose its prime and stop pumping if the casing gets too much air, gases, or vapors in it. The air, gases, and vapors need to be released before the water pump will work again. This is often done by physically opening a valve on the housing. A self-priming pump uses an air separation chamber to remove the gases and vapors bubbles from the liquid. This type of pump also has a priming chamber that holds fluids released into the priming chamber to re-prime the pump if it stops without having to do anything.
  • Vertical: Vertical water pumps are typically used in equipment like a parts washer or to pull water from a deep narrow well. These pumps don’t need much room to operate and work in high-temperature and high-pressure applications.
  • Jet: These are commonly used at homes or cottages because they are easy to install and don’t require a lot of overhead space. Jet pumps can be connected to a motor or engine needed to spin the impeller.
  • Froth: A froth water pump is typically used in the oil and gas, as well as pulp and paper industries. The impeller on these units is modified by drilling holes in it. This allows the air getting pulled into the system to escape through an expeller so it doesn’t lose its prime.
How do I choose?

You first need to determine how much liquid flow and pressure is needed for your situation. You also need to determine the amount of space and shape of the space that the unit will be stationed in.